Education in J&K: Status and Defects

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Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is a union territory of India that has undergone significant changes in recent years, particularly in terms of its education system.  Here the literacy rate has increased from 55% in 2001 to 68.74% in 2011, according to the latest Census figures. However, this rate is still lower than the national average of 74.04%. Furthermore, there are significant variations in literacy rates across different districts of J&K, with some areas reporting literacy rates as low as 10%.

Primary education in J&K is largely provided by government-run schools, which are free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14. The state government has also established a number of higher education institutions, including universities, colleges, and technical institutes. However, these institutions suffer from a lack of resources, infrastructure, and skilled faculty. As a result, many students are unable to access quality education, and those who do often face significant challenges.

Defects in the Education System:

The education system in J&K suffers from a number of defects that hinder its effectiveness. Some of the main defects are:

Inadequate Infrastructure: A large number of government schools in J&K lack basic infrastructure such as classrooms, electricity, toilets, and drinking water facilities. This makes it difficult for students to concentrate on their studies, and often leads to absenteeism and dropouts.

Shortage of SkilledFaculty: There is a shortage of qualified and experienced teachers in J&K, particularly in rural areas. This results in a poor quality of education, and students are often left behind in terms of academic achievement.

Insufficient Funding: The education sector in J&K receives limited funding from the government, which restricts the resources available for improving infrastructure and providing training to teachers.

Language Barrier: The medium of instruction in J&K is predominantly Urdu, which is not widely spoken in the region. This creates a language barrier for students, particularly those from non-Urdu speaking backgrounds.

Remedies for the Education System:

To address the defects in the education system in J&K, the following remedies may be considered:

Improve Infrastructure: The government should focus on improving the infrastructure of government schools, especially in rural areas. This can be achieved by increasing funding for the education sector and leveraging public-private partnerships to build new schools.

Skilled Faculty: The government should invest in training and hiring qualified and experienced teachers, especially in rural areas. This will improve the quality of education and help students achieve better academic outcomes.

Adequate Funding: The government should allocate more funding to the education sector in J&K, to enable the improvement of infrastructure and provide training to teachers.

LanguageMedium: The government should consider introducing the option of English as a medium of instruction, in addition to Urdu. This will help students from non-Urdu speaking backgrounds to better understand the subject matter and improve their academic performance.


In conclusion, the education system in J&K is in need of significant reform. Despite some progress, there are still major challenges that need to be addressed. The government needs to prioritize education and take steps to improve the infrastructure of schools, hire skilled teachers, and allocate adequate funding to the sector. By taking these measures, it is possible to provide quality education to all students in J&K and equip them with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in life.

The author is working as a teacher in Opinawaz high school Kulgam and can be mailed at [email protected]

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