Girls still make up a large proportion of out-of-school children
50% of girls get married after high school and the rest come in 12th standard. After this, about 25 percent of these girls enrol in college.
By: Dr. Satyavan Saurabh
Despite significant improvements in women’s participation in higher education and participation in the workforce over the past decades, progress is still very low. The female population in the world is estimated at 49.58% of the world population. Under-representation and inequality of women in higher education and low participation in the workforce are the results of deep social stigma, discrimination, and social norms. 50% of girls get married after high school and the rest come in 12th standard. After this, about 25 percent of these girls enrol in college. If girls get any kind of job after 12th, then they also leave their studies. Parents are concerned about the safety of their girls. They are also afraid that girls may run away if they become more educated.
Female enrolment has increased rapidly since the 1990s, yet there is a substantial gap between upper primary and secondary schooling. The increased female enrolment is compounded by the consistently high rates of girls relative to boys and low girls’ attendance. Girls also make up a large proportion of out-of-school children. There are also considerable inter-state variations in gender equality. The largest growth in female enrolment has been achieved in the most educationally disadvantaged states such as Bihar and Rajasthan, with these states still a long way to go to catch up with the better performing states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Himachal Pradesh. Is. Overcrowded classrooms, absent teachers, filthy conditions, and the absence of toilets for girls are common complaints within government schools and can cause parents to decide that it is not fit for their girls to go to school. Marriage at an early age according to their social customs, girls are not allowed to go out of home and village as it is a social taboo, parents go to their workplaces and domestic activities are done by little girls, The children are taken care of.
Home- Gender inequality in society and pre-age marriages. Frequent spoilage of students especially females due to lack of nutritious food and unhygienic conditions in the living areas. Due to difficult financial conditions and social conditioning, families usually neglect a girl child’s education as they are not ready for employment. The position of women in the social, political, and economic system is very low. They are also conspicuously absent from discussions of evolution theory. This leads to the absence of a prominent voice to assert their needs and rights as a citizen. Some studies suggest that girls are over-represented in government schools, reflecting continued son preference, where boys are educated in private and better schools that are (allegedly) of better quality. Violence against women and issues of safety is also other reasons.
Today, 11 of the 18 divisions of the country’s Department of Science and Technology are now headed by women, perhaps the largest percentage of women headed in any government department. As per the 2011 census, the female literacy level is 65.46% from 53.67% in 2001. About 28% of participants in external R&D projects were women in 2018-19, up from 13% in 2000-01. According to the ‘World Employment and Social Outlook Trends for Women’ 2018 report, today more women are educated and participating in the labor market than ever before. The number of women in senior management positions in the corporate sector in India is 39%, which is higher than the global average. Female CEOs account for 15% of Fortune 500 companies, while female board members in the management of private enterprises have increased from 15% (2016) to 19.7% in 2022. While female enrolment has increased rapidly since the 1990s, there is still a wide gap between upper primary and secondary education. Consistently higher rates of drop-outs and lower attendance of girls than boys. Girls also make up a large proportion of out-of-school children. There are also considerable inter-state variations in gender equality.
Some studies show that girls are over-represented in government schools, indicating that boys are educated in better schools. According to available UNESCO data, India ranks lowest, with only 14% of female researchers working in STEM fields. In most STEM institutions, women occupy 20% of all professorship positions. For example, IIT Madras has only 31 out of 314 professors (10.2%). Decision-making bodies such as the Board of Governors or the Council of Institutes of Distinguished Higher Education have a small number of women participants. Trends suggest that much has been done in the policy context, yet major policy challenges remain to be addressed. Gender equality or equality will happen only when there is a change in mindset. Literacy is a boon that is often taken for granted. Reading is essential in our daily life. Navigating through the world without being able to read or write is challenging and there is a blockade to experiencing so many things.
The writer is Poet, freelance journalist and columnist, All India Radio and TV panellist.